# In Soviet Russia, Boilerplate Scrap You

I’ve been working on BayesHive with Tom Nielsen for something like six months now, and it’s been a lot of fun. We’ve been ironing bugs out of the back-end of the system, which implements a probabilistic functional language (called Baysig). We found an entertaining thing the other day–I raised the bug report, Tom found out what was going on, and I laughed quite a lot when he told me.

We use the Scrap Your Boilerplate generics framework for doing various transformations of the AST of the Baysig language. It’s a great way to define transformations of complex hierarchical data structures in a nice compact way. It does have a trap for the unwary though...

Let’s look at some Haskell. We start with a language pragma so we can derive instances of Data and Typeable in a minute, and we import the main SYB generics module:

{-# LANGUAGE DeriveDataTypeable #-}

import Data.Generics


We’re going to look at a very simple example, where we represent the types of identifiers using a simple association list. Here’s a first attempt:

type Id1 = String
type Type1 = String
type AList1 = [(String, String)]

alist1 = [("f", "int"), ("g", "long"), ("h", "string")]


We just define type aliases for the identifier and type, and we define an example association list. Now, suppose we want to be able to rename identifiers. We can write a function that’s suitable for use with SYB very simply:

rename1 :: String -> String -> (String -> String)
rename1 from to s
| s == from = to
| otherwise = s


And here’s how we use it–mkT makes a generic transformer from a function, and everywhere applies it everywhere on a data structure:

λ > everywhere (mkT (rename1 "f" "fnew")) alist1
[("fnew","int"),("g","long"),("h","string")]


That looks fine! Let’s try another example:

λ > everywhere (mkT (rename1 "g" "gnew")) alist1
[("f","int"),("gnew","longnew"),("h","stringnew")]


Uh-oh. That’s quite a bit less fine! As well as renaming g to gnew, we seem to have renamed long to longnew and string to stringnew, which was definitely not what we intended.

What’s happening here is, in retrospect, really obvious, but it’s quite a bit harder to spot once you get this sort of problem cropping up in a large codebase. SYB works by matching on constructors, and when you say everywhere, SYB interprets “everywhere” really to mean everywhere. Given a string, which unfortunately is just a list of characters, SYB will traverse into the string. When we write mkT (rename1 "g" "gnew"), we’re thus producing a generic transformer that will match any string whose suffix is "g", not just exact matches for "g".

What’s cute about this is that it is exactly correct behaviour, but still very surprising until you think about it for two minutes. It’s very easy to fall into the habit of thinking of strings in Haskell as atomic values, but they’re not. They’re just lists of characters, built from [] and (:), and SYB will happily traverse into them just like it will into any other ADT. (Of course, we shouldn’t be using String at all. That’s what Text is for. But we’ve not got round to going through the Baysig compiler code with the hot swift sword of Textification yet.)

So, how to fix it with the least pain? Pretty obvious really. Just wrap our identifier and type types in a newtype:

newtype Id2 = Id String deriving (Eq, Show, Data, Typeable)
newtype Type2 = Type String deriving (Eq, Show, Data, Typeable)

alist2 = [(Id "f", Type "int"), (Id "g", Type "long"), (Id "h", Type "string")]


The new constructors that this introduces allow us to write a renaming function that does what we want:

rename2 :: String -> String -> (Id2 -> Id2)
rename2 from to s
| s == (Id from) = (Id to)
| otherwise = s


Now, SYB doesn’t traverse into the data structure past the newtype wrapper, and our renaming happens correctly:

λ > everywhere (mkT (rename2 "f" "fnew")) alist2
[(Id "fnew",Type "int"),(Id "g",Type "long"),(Id "h",Type "string")]
λ > everywhere (mkT (rename2 "g" "gnew")) alist2
[(Id "f",Type "int"),(Id "gnew",Type "long"),(Id "h",Type "string")]


In the end, quite a little thing. But it did amuse me.