In the last article in this series, benchmarking results gave a pretty good indication that we needed to do something about prime-length FFTs if we want to get good scaling for all input sizes. Falling back on the $O(N^2)$ DFT algorithm just isn’t good enough.

In this article, we’re going to look at an implementation of Rader’s FFT algorithm for prime-length inputs. Some aspects of this algorithm are not completely straightforward to understand since they rely on a couple of results from number theory and group theory. We’ll try to use small examples to motivate what’s going on.

Before we begin exploring Rader’s algorithm, it’s probably worth taking a minute to look at why we might expect there to be a better algorithm for prime-length FFTs than the naïve $O(N^2)$ DFT algorithm we’ve been using so far. Throughout this article, we’re going to use $F_5$ and $F_7$ as running examples (you’ll see why later). Here’s $F_5$:

$$F_5 = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 1 & \omega_{5}^{1} & \omega_{5}^{2} & \omega_{5}^{3} & \omega_{5}^{4} \\ 1 & \omega_{5}^{2} & \omega_{5}^{4} & \omega_{5}^{6} & \omega_{5}^{8} \\ 1 & \omega_{5}^{3} & \omega_{5}^{6} & \omega_{5}^{9} & \omega_{5}^{12} \\ 1 & \omega_{5}^{4} & \omega_{5}^{8} & \omega_{5}^{12} & \omega_{5}^{16} \\ \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 1 & \omega_{5}^{1} & \omega_{5}^{2} & \omega_{5}^{3} & \omega_{5}^{4} \\ 1 & \omega_{5}^{2} & \omega_{5}^{4} & \omega_{5}^{1} & \omega_{5}^{3} \\ 1 & \omega_{5}^{3} & \omega_{5}^{1} & \omega_{5}^{4} & \omega_{5}^{2} \\ 1 & \omega_{5}^{4} & \omega_{5}^{3} & \omega_{5}^{2} & \omega_{5}^{1} \\ \end{pmatrix}$$

and here’s $F_7$:

$$F_7 = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{1} & \omega_{7}^{2} & \omega_{7}^{3} & \omega_{7}^{4} & \omega_{7}^{5} & \omega_{7}^{6} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{2} & \omega_{7}^{4} & \omega_{7}^{6} & \omega_{7}^{8} & \omega_{7}^{10} & \omega_{7}^{12} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{3} & \omega_{7}^{6} & \omega_{7}^{9} & \omega_{7}^{12} & \omega_{7}^{15} & \omega_{7}^{18} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{4} & \omega_{7}^{8} & \omega_{7}^{12} & \omega_{7}^{16} & \omega_{7}^{20} & \omega_{7}^{24} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{5} & \omega_{7}^{10} & \omega_{7}^{15} & \omega_{7}^{20} & \omega_{7}^{25} & \omega_{7}^{30} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{6} & \omega_{7}^{12} & \omega_{7}^{18} & \omega_{7}^{24} & \omega_{7}^{30} & \omega_{7}^{36} \\ \end{pmatrix} = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 & 1 \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{1} & \omega_{7}^{2} & \omega_{7}^{3} & \omega_{7}^{4} & \omega_{7}^{5} & \omega_{7}^{6} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{2} & \omega_{7}^{4} & \omega_{7}^{6} & \omega_{7}^{1} & \omega_{7}^{3} & \omega_{7}^{5} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{3} & \omega_{7}^{6} & \omega_{7}^{2} & \omega_{7}^{5} & \omega_{7}^{1} & \omega_{7}^{4} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{4} & \omega_{7}^{8} & \omega_{7}^{5} & \omega_{7}^{2} & \omega_{7}^{6} & \omega_{7}^{3} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{5} & \omega_{7}^{3} & \omega_{7}^{1} & \omega_{7}^{6} & \omega_{7}^{4} & \omega_{7}^{2} \\ 1 & \omega_{7}^{6} & \omega_{7}^{5} & \omega_{7}^{4} & \omega_{7}^{3} & \omega_{7}^{2} & \omega_{7}^{1} \\ \end{pmatrix}$$

The main thing to notice is that if you look at the sub-matrix that excludes the top row and left column (both of which have entries that are all ones) from $F_5$ and $F_7$, you’ll see a matrix each of whose rows and columns is a permutation of the values $\omega_N^1, \omega_N^2, \dots, \omega_N^{N-1}$. This is because each row of $F_N$ is of the form $(\omega_N^{0k}, \omega_N^{1k}, \omega_N^{2k}, \dots, \omega_N^{(N-1)k})$ for $1 \leq k \leq N-1$. For prime $N$, none of these $k$ values divides $N$ exactly, so that there are no “repeats” in the powers of $\omega_N$.

So, there’s definitely something a little bit special about $F_N$ for prime $N$. To make effective use of this to produce a prime-length FFT requires some non-obvious insight.

Throughout the remainder of this article, we’ll use $p$ to denote some prime number, just to avoid repeatedly writing “for some prime $N$”.

The basic idea of Rader’s algorithm is to make use of the special permutation structure of the powers of $\omega_p$ in $F_p$ to write the DFT summation

$$H_n = \sum_{k=0}^{N-1} h_k e^{2\pi i k n/N} \qquad n = 0, 1, 2, \dots, N-1. \qquad (1)$$

as a convolution, which can then be calculated via FFTs of non-prime lengths. We’ll step through how this works, leaving a couple of details aside until we come to the implementation.

### Separation of zero-index values

The first thing we do is to split out the special zero-index parts of the Fourier matrix calculation, so that $(1)$ becomes

$$\begin{gathered} H_0 = \sum_{k=0}^{p-1} h_p \\ H_n = h_0 + \sum_{k=1}^{p-1} h_k \, \omega_p^{nk} \qquad n = 1, 2, \dots, p-1. \end{gathered} \qquad (2)$$

We thus need to work out an efficient way of calculating the sum in the second expression.

### Multiplicative group modulo $n$

The most common approach to thinking of a group structure for integers modulo some number $n$ is to use addition as the group operation, giving the group $\mathbb{Z}/n$ with group elements $0, 1, 2, \dots, n-1$. A less common approach is to think of the integers in $1, 2, \dots, n-1$ that are prime relative to $n$ with the group operation being multiplication modulo $n$. This group is denoted by a range of different notations, but we’ll call it $\mathbb{Z}_n^{\times}$. For prime $n$, all of the numbers $1, 2, \dots, n-1$ are elements of $\mathbb{Z}_n^{\times}$. For example, for $n=5$ and $n=7$, we have the following group multiplication tables:

 1 2 3 4 1 1 2 3 4 2 2 4 1 3 3 3 1 4 2 4 4 3 2 1
 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 2 4 6 1 3 5 3 3 6 2 5 1 4 4 4 1 5 2 6 3 5 5 3 1 6 4 2 6 6 5 4 3 2 1

This group turns out to be the key to writing the sum in $(2)$ as a convolution, since both $n$ and $k$ range over the values $1, 2, \dots, p-1$ and the multiplication in the power of $\omega_p$ is of necessity calculated modulo $p$ (since $\omega_p^p = 1$).

### Group generators

The group $\mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$ is cyclic, which means that any element of the group $a$ can be written as an integer power of a single element of the group, the group generator $g$, i.e. $a = g^i$ for some unique positive integer $i$ with $0 \leq i \leq p-2$, and equivalently $a = g^{-j}$ for some unique positive integer $j$ with $0 \leq j \leq p-2$, where negative powers of $g$ denote powers of the multiplicative inverse (modulo $p$) of $g$. For example, for $\mathbb{Z}_5^{\times}$, either 2 or 3 is a generator:

$$\begin{gathered} 2^0 = 1 = 1 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 2^1 = 2 = 2 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 2^2 = 4 = 4 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 2^3 = 8 = 3 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \\ 2^{-0} = 1 = 1 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 2^{-1} = 3 = 3 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 2^{-2} = 9 = 4 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 2^{-3} = 27 = 2 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \\ \\ 3^0 = 1 = 1 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 3^1 = 3 = 3 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 3^2 = 9 = 4 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 3^3 = 27 = 2 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \\ 3^{-0} = 1 = 1 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 3^{-1} = 2 = 2 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 3^{-2} = 4 = 4 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \qquad 3^{-3} = 8 = 3 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 5 \end{gathered}$$

In this case, $2 = 3^{-1}$ and $3 = 2^{-1}$. For $\mathbb{Z}_7^{\times}$, a suitable generator is 3, and

$$\begin{gathered} 3^0 = 1 = 1 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \qquad 3^1 = 3 = 3 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \qquad 3^2 = 9 = 2 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \\ 3^3 = 27 = 6 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \qquad 3^4 = 81 = 4 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \qquad 3^5 = 243 = 5 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \\ \\ 3^{-0} = 1 = 1 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \qquad 3^{-1} = 5 = 5 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \qquad 3^{-2} = 25 = 4 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \\ 3^{-3} = 125 = 6 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \qquad 3^{-4} = 625 = 2 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \qquad 3^{-5} = 3125 = 3 \,\mathrm{mod}\, 7 \end{gathered}$$

In this case, $5 = 3^{-1}$.

We’ll talk about how we determine the group generator $g$ later. For the moment, assume that we know a suitable generator.

### Representation as convolution

Given a generator $g$ for the group $\mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$, we can write the second equation in $(2)$ as

$$H_{g^{-r}} = h_0 + \sum_{q=0}^{p-2} h_{g^q} \, \omega_p^{g^{q-r}} = h_0 + \sum_{q=0}^{p-2} h_{g^q} \, \omega_p^{g^{-(r-q)}} \qquad r = 0, 1, \dots, p-2. \qquad (3)$$

(This relies on the fact that $h_k$ and $H_k$ are both periodic in $p$ and $\omega_p^p = 1$.)

For example, if $p=5$, taking $g=2$, we have:

$$\begin{gathered} r = 0, \; g^{-r} = 1 \Rightarrow H_1 = h_0 + \sum_{q=0}^{p-2} h_{g^q} \omega_5^{g^q} = h_0 + h_1 \omega_5 + h_2 \omega_5^2 + h_4 \omega_5^4 + h_3 \omega_5^3 \\ r = 1, \; g^{-r} = 3 \Rightarrow H_3 = h_0 + \sum_{q=0}^{p-2} h_{g^q} \omega_5^{g^{q-1}} = h_0 + h_1 \omega_5^3 + h_2 \omega_5^1 + h_4 \omega_5^2 + h_3 \omega_5^4 \\ r = 2, \; g^{-r} = 4 \Rightarrow H_4 = h_0 + \sum_{q=0}^{p-2} h_{g^q} \omega_5^{g^{q-2}} = h_0 + h_1 \omega_5^4 + h_2 \omega_5^3 + h_4 \omega_5^1 + h_3 \omega_5^2 \\ r = 3, \; g^{-r} = 2 \Rightarrow H_2 = h_0 + \sum_{q=0}^{p-2} h_{g^q} \omega_5^{g^{q-3}} = h_0 + h_1 \omega_5^2 + h_2 \omega_5^4 + h_4 \omega_5^3 + h_3 \omega_5^1 \end{gathered}$$

and comparison of the right hand sides of each of these equations with the rows of $F_5$ shows that this generator-based approach replicates the rows of the Fourier matrix, albeit in a different order to the “normal” order.

The summation in the expression $(3)$ is in the form of a cyclic convolution of the two sequences $a_q = h_{g^q}$ and $b_q = \omega_p^{g^{-q}}$, both of length $p-1$ with $0 \leq q \leq p-2$. For example, for $p=5$, taking $g=2$:

 $\;q\;$ 0 1 2 3 $\;a_q\;$ $\;h_1\;$ $\;h_2\;$ $\;h_4\;$ $\;h_3\;$ $\;b_q\;$ $\;\omega_5^1\;$ $\;\omega_5^3\;$ $\;\omega_5^4\;$ $\;\omega_5^2\;$

and for $p=7$ with $g=3$:

 $\;q\;$ 0 1 2 3 4 5 $\;a_q\;$ $\;h_1\;$ $\;h_3\;$ $\;h_2\;$ $\;h_6\;$ $\;h_4\;$ $\;h_5\;$ $\;b_q\;$ $\;\omega_7^1\;$ $\;\omega_7^5\;$ $\;\omega_7^4\;$ $\;\omega_7^6\;$ $\;\omega_7^2\;$ $\;\omega_7^3\;$

### Calculation of convolution using FFT

Recall that, for a continuous convolution of the form

$$(f * g)(t) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} f(\tau) g(t - \tau) \, dt,$$ we have the convolution theorem:

$$\mathcal{F}(f * g) = \mathcal{F}(f) \cdot \mathcal{F}(g),$$

where we denote the Fourier transform of a function $f$ by $\mathcal{F}(f)$. A comparable result applies for the discrete cyclic convolution in $(3)$. Let us denote the sequence $a_q$ defined above as $\tilde{h} = (h_{g^q})$ and the sequence $b_q$ as $\tilde{\omega}_p = (\omega_p^{g^{-q}})$, both for $0 \leq q \leq p-2$, and let us write $\tilde{H} = (H_{g^{-q}})$ for the same range of $q$ to represent the results of the convolution as a sequence. Then:

$$\tilde{H} - h_0 = \mathrm{DFT}^{-1}\left[ \mathrm{DFT}[\tilde{h}] \cdot \mathrm{DFT}[\tilde{\omega}_p] \right]$$

The discrete Fourier transform of the prime-length input can thus be calculated by:

1. Reordering the input vector according to the indexing scheme for the sequence $\tilde{h}$;

2. Calculating the DFT of $\tilde{h}$;

3. Multiplying $\mathrm{DFT}[\tilde{h}]$ pointwise by the DFT of the reordered sequence of powers of $\omega_p$ represented by the sequence $\tilde{\omega}_p$;

4. Calculating the inverse DFT of this product;

5. Reordering the result according to the indexing scheme for the sequence $\tilde{H}$ and adding in the DC offset $h_0$.

The convolution derived above is of length $p-1$, which, since $p$ is prime, must be composite. We can thus calculate the length $p-1$ discrete Fourier transforms required by the above approach using our Cooley-Tukey divide and conquer algorithm. The index reorderings and the DFT of the sequence of powers of $\omega_p$ can all be determined in advance since they depend only on $p$.

For $p=5$, taking $g=2$, this approach looks like this:

1. Reorder the input vector to give $\tilde{h} = (h_1, h_2, h_4, h_3)$.

2. Calculate $\mathrm{DFT}[\tilde{h}]$ using a conventional FFT algorithm; in this case, this is efficient because the length of $\tilde{h}$ is a power of two.

3. Multiply $\mathrm{DFT}[\tilde{h}]$ pointwise by $\mathrm{DFT}[\tilde{\omega}_5]$, which can be pre-computed: $\tilde{\omega}_5 = (\omega_5^1, \omega_5^3, \omega_5^4, \omega_5^2)$.

4. Calculate the inverse DFT of the pointwise product to give $\tilde{H}$–this is again an efficient calculation because the input length is a power of two.

5. Add the DC offset and extract the final results from $\tilde{H} = (H_1, H_3, H_4, H_2)$.

For $p=5$, $p-1$ is a power of two, which means that the FFT calculations needed in the Rader algorithm are as efficient as possible. However, if $p-1$ itself has large prime factors, it may prove necessary to apply Rader’s algorithm recursively, which will be much less efficient than a direct recursive FFT.

An alternative (and better) approach is provided by zero-padding the sequences involved in the convolution–by padding to a length that is a power of two, recursive application of Rader’s algorithm is avoided. To do this, let us write the two sequences to be convolved as $f[i]$ and $g[i]$, both of length $M-1$ (we write $M-1$ here to match the convolution length $p-1$ in the FFT calculation, and we use the square bracket notation for indexing to make some of the expressions below less ambiguous). The cyclic convolution of these two sequences is

$$(f * g)[n] = \sum_{m=0}^{M-1} f[m] g[n-m]$$ where all indexes on the sequences $f[i]$ and $g[i]$ are zero-based and are taken modulo $M$.

We produce new sequences $f’[j]$ and $g’[j]$ of length $M’$ where $M’ \geq 2M - 3$. This condition on $M’$ is required to avoid “interference” between unrelated elements of the original sequences due to the wrap-around of the cyclic convolution that we’re going to compute. In our FFT application, we will choose $M’$ to be a power of two, but any value works as long as it is large enough to satisfy this condition. The sequence $f’[j]$ is constructed by inserting $M’-M$ zeroes between the zeroth and first element of $f[i]$. Sequence $g’[j]$ is constructed by cyclically repeating the values of $g[i]$ to give a sequence of total length $M’$. If we now convolve the sequences $f’[j]$ and $g’[j]$, we find that the result contains the convolution of the original sequences $f[i]$ and $g[i]$ as its first $M-1$ elements.

A minimal example gives a feeling for why this works. Suppose that we set $M=4$ (so the sequences are of length 3) and consider

$$f[i] = (1, 2, 3) \quad \text{and} \quad g[i] = (a, b, c).$$ The cyclic convolution of these sequences is found as:

$$\begin{gathered} (f * g)[0] = f[0] g[0-0] + f[1] g[0-1] + f[2] g[0-2] = 1 a + 2 c + 3 b, \\ (f * g)[1] = f[0] g[1-0] + f[1] g[1-1] + f[2] g[1-2] = 1 b + 2 a + 3 c, \\ (f * g)[2] = f[0] g[2-0] + f[1] g[2-1] + f[2] g[2-2] = 1 c + 2 b + 3 a. \end{gathered}$$

The condition on $M’$ is that $M’ \geq 2M-3 = 5$. Putting $M’=5$, the new sequences are then

$$f’[j] = (1, 0, 0, 2, 3) \quad \text{and} \quad g’[j] = (a, b, c, a, b).$$ and the first three elements of the cyclic convolution of these new sequences are:

$$\begin{gathered} \begin{split} (f’ * g’)[0] &= f’[0] g’[0-0]+f’[1] g’[0-1]+f’[2] g’[0-2]+ \\ &f’[3] g’[0-3]+f’[4] g’[0-4] = 1 a + 0 b + 0 a + 2 c + 3 b = 1 a + 2 c + 3 b, \end{split} \\ \begin{split} (f’ * g’)[1] &= f’[0] g’[1-0]+f’[1] g’[1-1]+f’[2] g’[1-2]+ \\ &f’[3] g’[1-3]+f’[4] g’[1-4] = 1 b + 0 a + 0 b + 2 a + 3 c = 1 b + 2 a + 3 c, \end{split} \\ \begin{split} (f’ * g’)[2] &= f’[0] g’[2-0]+f’[1] g’[2-1]+f’[2] g’[2-2]+ \\ &f’[3] g’[2-3]+f’[4] g’[2-4] = 1 c + 0 b + 0 a + 2 b + 3 a = 1 c + 2 b + 3 a. \end{split} \end{gathered}$$

We see that these are identical to the values found from the original sequences $f[i]$ and $g[i]$.

To make use of this result in Rader’s algorithm, we just choose the smallest power of two that satisfies the length condition on the sequences to be convolved, pad the input sequence $f[i]$ with zeroes and convolve with the repeated $\omega_p$ sequence. (Most of the details can be pre-computed as part of the FFT “planning” phase.)

In this section, we’ll look at a basic Haskell implementation of Rader’s algorithm. The implementation here is structured more to be understandable than to be particularly efficient. We’ll reorganise the code to pre-compute some things for efficiency when we start optimising the overall FFT code later on.

After describing the details of the main algorithm, we’ll look at the approach used for the calculation of primitive roots of $p$ to determine generators of the group $\mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$, since this requires a little explanation. Finally, we’ll look at some test results. Here’s the code for our Haskell implementation (we’ll refer to the line numbers in what follows):

-- | FFT and inverse FFT drivers for Rader's algorithm.
raderIFFT v = raderFFT' (-1) (1.0 / (fromIntegral $length v)) v -- | Rader's algorithm for prime-length complex-to-complex Fast -- Fourier Transform. raderFFT' :: Int -> Double -> VCD -> VCD raderFFT' sign scale xs | isPrime p = map ((scale :+ 0) *)$ generate p $\idx -> case idx of 0 -> sum xs _ -> xs ! 0 + convmap M.! idx | otherwise = error "non-prime length in raderFFT" where p = length xs p1 = p - 1 -- ^ Convolution length. p1pad = if p1 == 2^(log2 p1) then p1 else 2 ^ (1 + log2 (2 * p1 - 3)) -- ^ Convolution length padded to next greater power of two. g = primitiveRoot p -- ^ Group generator. ig = invModN p g -- ^ Inverse group generator. as = backpermute xs$ iterateN p1 (\n -> (g * n) mod p) 1
-- ^ Input values permuted according to group generator
-- indexing.
apad = generate p1pad $\idx -> if idx == 0 then as ! 0 else if idx > pad then as ! (idx - pad) else 0 -- ^ Permuted input vector padded to next greater power of two -- size for fast convolution. iidxs = iterateN p1 (\n -> (ig * n) mod p) 1 -- ^ Index vector based on inverse group generator ordering. w = omega p bs = backpermute (map ((w ^^) . (sign *))$ enumFromTo 0 p1) iidxs
-- ^ Root of unity powers based on inverse group generator
-- indexing.
bpad = generate p1pad (\idx -> bs ! (idx mod p1))
-- ^ Root of unity powers cyclically repeated to make vector
-- of next power of two length for fast convolution.
conv = ifft $zipWith (*) (fft apad) (fft bpad) -- ^ FFT-based convolution calculation. convmap = M.fromList$ toList $zip iidxs conv -- ^ Map constructed to enable inversion of inverse group -- generator index ordering for output.  ### Overall driver As for the earlier mixed-radix FFT, we have top-level functions to perform forward and inverse FFTs (lines 2-4), both of which call a common driver function (raderFFT'), passing in sign and scale parameters to control the direction and final output scaling of the transform. The final generation of the transformed output (lines 10-12) applies the appropriate output scaling to a vector constructed from the sum of the input elements (index 0, corresponding to$H_0$in$(2)$) and (other indexes) a DC offset ($h_0$in$(2)$) and the appropriate element of the generator-based convolution. In order to deal with the generator-based indexing for the$H$values in$(3)$, the convolution results are put into a map (convmap: line 46) from where they can easily be extracted in output index order. ### Index organisation The determination of the indexes needed for the generator-based indexing scheme in$(3)$is done by: 1. Calculating the generator g for the group$\mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$where$p$is the prime input vector length (line 21: see below for details); 2. Permuting the input vector elements according to powers of the group generator (line 25: this is the computation of the sequence$a_q$for the convolution using the indexing defined in$(3)$); 3. Calculating the inverse element of the generator in$\mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$(line 23: the invModN function finds the multiplicative inverse modulo$N$of a given integer argument); 4. Calculating the inverse generator-based indexes needed for permuting both the powers of$\omega_p$and the output elements (iidxs: line 35). The iidxs index vector is used to permute the powers of$\omega_p$(line 38) producing the$b_q$sequence used in the convolution of$(3)$and is also used (line 46) to build the index map used to extract result values from the result of the convolution. ### Padding to power-of-two length If$p-1$is a power of two, no padding of the$a_q$and$b_q$sequences is needed for efficient calculation of the convolution$(3)$. In all other cases, both sequences need to be padded to a suitable power of two. Calculation of the padded length (lines 17-19) take account of the minimum size requirement on the padded inputs to the convolution to avoid “wrap-around” effects, and this length is used to control the generation of padded versions of$a_q$(apad: lines 30-32) and$b_q$(bpad: line 41). (The “padded” version of$b_q$is just a cyclic repeat of the values calculated in line 38.) ### Convolution Once suitably padded versions of the$a_q$and$b_q$sequences are computed, the actual convolution step is simple (line 44). Both sequences are Fourier transformed (recall that the padded sequence lengths are a power of two, so this is an efficient computation), multiplied together pointwise and inverse transformed. The convolution of the original unpadded sequences is then found in the first$p-1$entries of this result—this is what is picked out by the indexing defined by convmap, defined in line 46. ### Primitive root calculation An important step in Rader’s prime length FFT algorithm is the determination of the generator of the group$\mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$. For this group, the group generator is called the primitive root modulo$p$. There is no simple general formula to compute primitive roots modulo$n$, but there are methods to determine a primitive root faster than simply trying out all candidate values. In our case, we’re only ever going to be dealing with primitive roots of prime$p$, which simplifies things a little. We proceed by first calculating$\varphi(p)$, where$\varphi$is Euler’s totient function. For prime$p$,$\varphi(p) = p - 1$. We then determine the distinct prime factors of$\varphi(p)$, which we’ll call$p_1, p_2, \dots, p_k$. Then, for each$m \in \mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$, we compute $$m^{\varphi(p) / p_i} \,\mathrm{mod}\, n \qquad\text{ for } i = 1, \dots, k$$ using a fast algorithm for modular exponentiation (we use exponentiation by squaring). A number$m$for which these$k$values are all different from 1 is a primitive root. The implementation is pretty much just a straightforward transcription into Haskell of the description above. In cases where there multiple primitive roots (the number of primitive roots modulo$n$, if there are any, is$\varphi(\varphi(n))$), we just take the first one: primitiveRoot :: Int -> Int primitiveRoot p | isPrime p = let tot = p - 1 -- ^ Euler's totient function for prime values. totpows = map (tot div)$ fromList $nub$ toList $factors tot -- ^ Powers to check. check n = all (/=1)$ map (expt p n) totpows
-- ^ All powers are different from 1 => primitive root.
in fromIntegral $head$ dropWhile (not . check) $fromList [1..p-1] | otherwise = error "Attempt to take primitive root of non-prime value" -- | Fast exponentation modulo n by squaring. -- expt :: Int -> Int -> Int -> Int expt n b pow = fromIntegral$ go pow
where bb = fromIntegral b
nb = fromIntegral n
go :: Int -> Integer
go p
| p == 0 = 1
| p mod 2 == 1 = (bb * go (p - 1)) mod nb
| otherwise = let h = go (p div 2) in (h * h) mod nb


We also have some support code for QuickCheck testing of the primitive root algorithm:

-- | QuickCheck generator for prime values.  Inefficient...
--
newtype Prime a = Prime { getPrime :: a }
deriving (Eq, Ord, Show, Read, Num, Integral, Real, Enum)
instance (Integral a, Ord a, Arbitrary a) => Arbitrary (Prime a) where
arbitrary = (Prime . (\n -> P.head $P.dropWhile (< n) primes)) fmap (arbitrary suchThat (> 1)) -- Test code for primitive root determination. prop_primitive_root ((Prime n) :: Prime Int) = primitiveRootTest n$ primitiveRoot n

primitiveRootTest :: Int -> Int -> Bool
primitiveRootTest p root
| isPrime p = (sort $toList$ pows) == [1..p-1]
| otherwise = error "Attempt to take primitive root of non-prime value"
where pows = generate (p - 1) (expt p root)


We need to generate prime numbers to test the primitive root calculation, and it’s much quicker to write a separate QuickCheck generator, using a specialised Arbitrary instance for a custom Prime newtype to do this than to try generating positive integers and filtering out non-primes using QuickCheck’s ==> filtering operator. We can collect some evidence that the algorithm works by doing something like this in GHCi:

> :load Prime-FFT.hs
[1 of 1] Compiling Prime-FFT         ( Prime-FFT.hs, interpreted )
> verboseCheckWith (stdArgs { maxSize=25 }) prop_primitive_root
Passed:
Prime {getPrime = 3}
Passed:
Prime {getPrime = 7}
...
Passed:
Prime {getPrime = 14771}
Passed:
Prime {getPrime = 6691}
Passed:
Prime {getPrime = 23753}
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.

We can use the same approach for testing our implementation of Rader’s algorithm that we used for testing the mixed-radix FFT algorithm, i.e. by comparing Rader FFT results to results of the basic DFT algorithm, and testing FFT/IFFT round-trip calculations. The only slight wrinkle here is that we need to test for input vectors of prime length only, so that we need a specialised Arbitrary instance to generate these:

instance Arbitrary VCD where
arbitrary = do
len <- elements $P.takeWhile (< 500) primes fromList <$> vectorOf len arbitrary


With this, we can do some testing. In GHCi:

> :load Prime-FFT.hs
[1 of 1] Compiling PrimeFFT           ( Prime-FFT.hs, interpreted )
+++ OK, passed 100 tests.